Indian Agriculture depends on Rivers that flow throughout the country and merge with either Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea

It is no wonder that three-fourths of earth’s surface is covered by water. Indian being a peninsular sub continent is covered by water on three sides and land on the fourth side. This implies that Indian rivers play a pivotal role in the life of Indians which are used for multi-purpose activities. The agriculture, irrigation, transport, electricity and a host of other livelihood activities are dependent on river systems in India. Even Hindu mythology gives sacred place to the Rivers which is hailed as pious part of the religion. The inland drainage system are found in places like Aravali ranges, Thar Desert ad Ladakh regions. The efficient use of the River water is yet to be explored to give sufficient water supply throughout the Indian households.

River System and Cities of India

Most of the prominent cities in India are situated on the banks of one of the nine major rivers, viz., Tapi, Krishna, Godavari, Kaveri, Narmada, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Yamuna and the Ganges. The Indus River which mainly flows through the country of Pakistan has parts of it flowing in India. The eight major Rivers mentioned above together with the tributaries comprise the complete river system in India. The Musi River in Hyderabad, Gaggar Hakra River in Rajasthan & Haryana and the Samir River in Gujarat are exceptions which flow through interiors of the cities. The complete list of Rivers, their itinerary and flow through Indian geography is available on

Rivers that merge with Bay of Bengal:

Bay of Bengal is regarded as the biggest bay in the world which is surrounded by Sri Lanka, India and Bangladesh, giving the Bay a triangular shape. The large rivers together with its tributaries viz., the Padma of Ganges River, Brahmaputra River through its tributaries Jamuna and Meghna; Kaveri, Krishna and Godavari in their original forms are Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal. The Bay of Bengal is connected to the land through ports of Pondicherry, Karaikal, Ennore, Chennai, Cudalore, Gangavaram and Vizag. These ports are the main source for transport on the water from one place to other.

The people in Mizoram and Bangladesh get their main source of water from Karnaphuli and the water from this source is put to efficient usage.

Rivers merging with Arabian Sea

This is one of the important parts of the Indian Ocean bounded by Iran, Somalia, India and Arabian Penninsula. Somalia, Djbouti, Maldives, Iran, Pakistan, India and Oman are some of the countries that share the borders of Arabian Sea. In Ancient India, the sea was named as Sindhu Sagar. Aden, Kutch and Cambay are the gulfs on the cost of Arabian Sea. Indus River is the largest river flowing into Arabian Sea which originated from Pakistan runs through Indian geography and finally ends its destination here.

Mangalore, ormara, Kochi, Karachi, Salalah, Muscat, Mumbai, Duqm, Bandar are some of the cities situated on the banks of Arabian Sea. The salty sea water is not of much agricultural usage but is used for other purposes like generation of electricity and hydro power.

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Shiv Raj, the author is a research associate of Potamology and is more focused on the Holy Indian Rivers. The Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea and Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal interests the author, especially the mythological connect and agricultural uses are of main focus.

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