Sustainable agriculture is the act of farming using principles of ecology; sustainability involves making better use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so improving their self-reliance.
Hydroponic systems are now widely used in commercial greenhouses. It is a system of agriculture that utilizes nutrient-laden water rather than soil for plant nourishment. Because it does not require natural precipitation or fertile land in order to be effective, it presents people who are living in arid regions with a means to grow food for them and for profit. In addition, the technique can be used in roof top farming and therefore is very useful in areas with limited space such as urban areas.
The re-use of nutrient water supplies limits excessive plant growth due to overabundant nutrients and general pollution of land and water unlikely, since runoff in weather-independent facilities is not a concern. Hydroponic systems do not require pesticides, require less water and space than traditional agricultural. Self-sustaining city-based food systems mean a reduced strain on distant farms, the reduction of habitat intrusions, fewer food miles, and fewer carbon emissions.
There are countries, especially in the Arabian Peninsula where agricultural activities are limited to around 1% of land. Farmers here have to contend with extremely scarce water supplies and poor soils at the same time maximizing productivity per unit area is paramount. The implementation of promising technologies is vital in such regions to deal with the physical constraints, enhance agricultural productivity and rural livelihoods.
Soilless production through the use of hydroponic farming methods remains the best solution for raising the water productivity and sustaining agricultural production in these countries. They have successfully implemented the techniques of aquaponics or hydroponics, in order to meet their increasing food demands, in a sustainable way.
A more sustainable agriculture seeks to make the best use of nature’s goods and services as functional inputs. It does this by paying attention to regenerative processes, such as nutrient cycling and soil regeneration. It may also use the natural enemies of pests rather than using chemical controls in the food production processes so it minimizes the use of non-renewable inputs (pesticides and fertilizers) that damage the environment or harm the health of farmers and consumers.